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The aim of the study was the evaluation of three experimental plots Novosedly, Krnov, Líšná established in Moravia regions (Czech Republic). Progenies of hybrid aspen from controlled pollination (33 progenies of Populus tremula × P. tremuloides and 4 progenies of P. tremula × P. tremula) were measured at the age of 10, resp. 11 years. Basic quantitative characteristics (height, DBH, stem volume, standing volume) were evaluated and progenies were compared. Best results showed the group of progenies P. tremula × P. tremuloides obtained from crossing of maternal genotypes P. tremula selected in previous progeny tests. Standing volume of this group of progenies ranged among 197–295 m3/ha in Novosedly experiment, among 163–225 m3/ha in Krnov experiment. Standing volume of the group of progenies P. tremula × P. tremuloides with maternal genotypes selected only as plus trees in forest stands ranged among 193–208 m3/ha in Novosedly experiment, among 163–202 m3/ha in Krnov experiment. Reference progenies of P. tremula × P. tremula (crossing of parent plus trees from forest stands) planted in Krnov exhibited the lowest standing volume (92–105 m3/ha).
The aim of the study was to evaluate the change in the air-conditioning function of forest stands and agricultural landscape in the wider vicinity of Dačice town (328 km2) in the period 1990–2019. The air-conditioning function is manifested by the values of the surface temperature on sunny days in the growing season, with high amount of incoming solar radiation (up to 900 W.m-2). The surface temperature of the land cover is given mainly by the ratio between the evapotranspiration (latent heat of vaporization) and heating (sensible heat flux). The cooling ability of forest stands is evaluated by the difference between the surface and air temperature above the stand. In the case study we verify the thesis of the gradual loss of water and vegetation cover in the hills of the Bohemian-Moravian Highlands leading to an increase in surface temperatures, increasing difference between surface and air temperature, higher release of sensible heat at the expense of evapotranspiration (latent heat of vaporization). We then pay special attention to the effect of extensive decay of spruce stands after the gradation of the bark beetle (Ips typographus) on the distribution of solar energy and temperature. Landsat satellite images were used for the assessment, in combination with meteorological data. Energy fluxes were spatially quantified using a gradient approach implemented in the QGIS module SEBCS (Module for spatial computing of energy balance, intensity of evapotranspiration and crop water stress using satellite data). We discuss the importance of dry superheated surfaces for landscape drying, when moisture is carried away by the rising flow of heated air.
From November 2018 until January 2019, the frost resistance of white oak (Quercus petraea (Matt.) Liebl.), European beech (Fagus sylvatica L.), Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.), Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst.) and Douglas fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco) plantig stock was evaluated. After exposing the shoots to frost, the tissue damage was assessed by measuring: the ratio of electrical resistance before and after freezing (R1/R2), the relative electrical conductivity of shoots leakage, and the occurrence of color changes in different tissues and chlorophyll fluorescence of the needles. The method of evaluating tissue color changes is reliable, but it takes long time to decide on the storability of plantig stock. From the faster methods, chlorophyll fluorescence measurement proved to be the most suitable for conifers. For the deciduous trees, it is suitable to measure the relative electrical conductivity of shoots leakage.
Douglas-fir (DF) has been recently considered a partial substitution for native conifers attacked by bark beetles following climate change. Given the obvious vulnerability of domestic species to the ongoing climate shifts, it is necessary to study impact of DF on hydroclimatic regime of stands where DF is present. Between 2012 and 2019, a volumetric soil moisture was monitored in four layers of sand-loamy, stony cambisol. DF-dominated planted stand where alternating rows of DF and European beech (EB) reached mean heights of 16 m and 8 m with mean basal areas amounting 34.0 m2 and 3.3 m2 respectively in 17th year of age. The study site is a former meadow at mean altitude of 510 m on slope with NW aspect. The moisture measurements were conducted using three sensors at each soil depths, i.e. 15 cm, 30 cm, 45 cm and 60 cm. Data were processed using an equation allowing us to calculate loss of moisture due to both the deeper groundwater recharge and the evapotranspiration in dormant and growing season, respectively. In the last four out of five growing seasons, the moisture availability limit (11%) has been reached in the surface soil layers (0–20 and 20–35 cm) and its reduced availability has been extended. As soil moisture oscillated seasonally, a falling linear trend was used to approximate the loss of soil moisture at all the depths monitored in dormant and growing seasons. The down-percolating and evapotranspired water amounts decreased at all the soil depths in the period from 2012/2013 to 2018/2019 hydrological years. Soil water outputs showed substantially greater loss attributable to evapotranspiration amounting 161–404 mm (mean value 237 mm) compared to winter ground-water recharge ranging 134–171 mm (mean value 150 mm).
This work deals with comparison of aboveground biomass of 9-year-old silver birch and European beech stands (treatments) growing on former clearing. At the beginning and the end of the 9th growing season, height of beech (artificial regeneration) and DBH of birch (succession) was measured. To estimate the aboveground biomass of the beech and birch treatments, allometric equations based on the data of the sample trees were used. Only 47% and 46% of 10,000 planted beeches was found at the time of measurement. At the same time, density of birch in succession treatment was 10,900 plants per ha. Dominant height of birch was about 8 m, whereas maximum height of planted beech was under 3 m. Estimated total aboveground biomass of birch and beech stand were 26.8 (stem – 18.4; branches – 5.5; leaves – 2.9) and 0.8 (stem – 0.44; branches – 0.2; leaves – 0.16) t.ha-1, respectively. More biomass means more carbon sequestration – thus more environmental benefits provided by birch stands. It can be concluded that birch should be widely used in the process of reforestation after disasters.
Restoration of large scale (calamitous) clearings and landscape reclamation are accompanied by problems associated with the extremity of an open habitats, such as increased nutrient leaching, unfavourable microclimate and development of unwanted weeds. One of the means how to modify soil properties is a targeted use of phytomelioration species, which could also help to moderate temperature extremes of the site and to limit the development of weeds. Annual yellow lupine is an herb recommended as a green-manuring crop in forest nurseries. The aim of the paper is to evaluate potential of using yellow lupine as soil improving and sheltering crop in restoration of large clearings and in sand mine reclamations. The research was carried out on two calamitous clearings, in a reclaimed sand mine, and as a control variant also in forest nursery in 2019–2020. Row, broadcast and individual sowings of yellow lupine to woody plants were tested in various combinations. The results showed very limited potential of the lupine application on calamitous clearings but also in areas of sand mine reclamation, due to its limited growth, low competitiveness and especially high share of game damage. Benefit of yellow lupine use as a green-manuring crop in forest nurseries was supported.
The main objective of the study was to evaluate long-term growth response of spruce to climatic factors using the set of 3,062 tree-ring series collected in 2013–2019 from the entire territory of the Czech Republic. Multivariate analysis of dendrochronological data and available environmental parameters allowed the identification of climatic factors with negative impact on spruce growth. The dominant climatic factor negatively influencing the spruce growth in the Czech Republic in this period was the lack of precipitation during the summer. The negative impact of summer drought was the most pronounced in locations up to 650 m a. s. l. However, the effect of drought was evident in some cases even at altitudes above 1000 m a. s. l. Growth of spruce in lower and middle altitudes in western and central Bohemia was also limited by the lack of precipitation in winter, while in eastern Bohemia and Moravia the growth was negatively affected by drought in the autumn of the previous year. The different growth response of lowland spruce ecotype shows how specific ecotype and site conditions can locally change the climate-growth relationship.
The aim of the paper is the quantification of the water protection ecosystem service of the forest by the method of alternative costs based on the analysis of selected water reservoirs from the region of Central Slovakia. An alternative to providing ecosystem services in this case is the cost of drinking water treatment. Based on the analysis of water treatment costs in the time period 2011–2015 of the Málinec, Klenovec and Turček water reservoirs and the forest cover of their catchments, the dependence between forest cover and the costs of drinking water treatment is quantified. Results of the regression function confirmed the dependence between forest cover and costs of drinking water treatment. The forest water protection service is determined as a potential saving of costs for water treatment of water management companies in the existence of a certain share of forest cover of the catchment. The value of this service in the case of analysed water reservoirs is in the range from 1.67 to 8.90 €/ha/year.