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At the turn of the 1970s and 1980s, oak stands were affected by a tracheomycosis disease of fungal origin, known as the mass dieback of oaks. At present, the effects of climate change, especially drought, have also begun to affect oak stands. Suitable stand tending methods are considered to be one of the mitigation measures. This paper compares the 25-year development of the oak stand, which was established with different variants of tending. Quantitative characteristics (number of trees, basal area, merchantable volume, increment on basal area and volume, total production) were evaluated. The influence of tending was also monitored in relation to the development of crop trees. The results confirmed the highest values of quantitative parameters on control plots. It has been shown that heavy tending interventions in the early developmental stages of oak stands are less suitable compared to moderate interventions. For more information see Summary at the end of the article.
Topsoil contents of cadmium (Cd), copper (Cu), lead (Pb), zinc (Zn) and related soil properties such as pH and carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) contents were studied in the two main forest types of the Archbishopric forests in the area of the Jeseníky Mts., Czech Republic. Statistical comparisons were carried out between mature Norway spruce (NS) and European beech (EB) stands, separately for the forest floor (horizons FH) and the mineral (0–2 cm depth) soil. The FH horizons under EB showed higher contents of Zn, as compared to NS. In comparison, potentially higher contents of Cd were found under NS. The mineral topsoil under EB showed higher contents of Pb and Zn as compared to NS. In contrast, the pH was higher and the C:N ratio lower under EB, as compared to NS in both soil layers; the latter due to higher C under NS in organic horizons, while higher N under EB in the mineral soil. The results indicate that the species composition of managed forests may have conflicting impacts on soil quality and the accumulation and persistence of heavy metals in forest soils. For more information see Summary at the end of the article.
The review summarizes available knowledge of management of populations of free-living wild boar with the focus on Central Europe. The wild boar is actually a key species that significantly influences the economy of farming, causes traffic accidents on the roads and other damage, and negatively affects the diversity of plant and animal communities. Therefore, regulation of its numbers is necessary. However, effort to reduce the current populations of wild boar is affected by the favourable environmental conditions, which do not limit population growth. In the Central Europe, wild boar finds enough food throughout the whole year. It can be expected that majority of adult females and significant part of young females will be involved in the reproductive process. Although there are several potential methods for regulation, in reality only shooting by hunters can be effectively used in the conditions of Central Europe. Their activity and hunting strategy significantly affect both the success in regulating the number of wild boar and its distribution, behaviour and reproduction. The importance, impacts and consequent responsibility of hunters in management of wild boar populations are thus significantly greater than simply maintaining the abundance. For more information see Summary at the end of the article.
Forest management might be threatened by declining health status of oaks in the transition zone between oak and beech forests, where drought is the most limiting factor. The aim of the presented paper is to assess the influence of selected climatic characteristics on the radial growth of oak trees with different stem diameter status in the beech-oak and oak-beech forest altitudinal zones within the forest growth area of Poľana Mt. and Zvolen Basin (Slovakia). Our results show that oaks with less favourable stem diameter position (Weisse’s middle stems) show slower radial growth, have less pronounced climatic precipitation signal and milder response to extreme climatic events. The findings potentially suggest that not only favourable tree species composition of stands, but also the stand structure can mitigate the negative impacts of climate change on forest growth. For more information see Summary at the end of the article.
Soil testing methods for determination of exchangeable and pseudototal forms of nutrients and elements that are currently used in the Czech Republic were compared. Results of different methods were investigated by parallel analysis of forest soil samples. The aim of the analyses was to determine exchangeable content of calcium, potassium, magnesium, aluminium, iron, manganese, sodium (Ca, K, Mg, Al, Fe, Mn a Na) and pseudototal content of calcium, potassium, magnesium, phosphorus, aluminium, iron, manganese, lead and zinc (Ca, K, Mg, P, Al, Fe, Mn, Pb, Zn). Hundred forest soil samples were analysed for the study using Mehlich III extracting solution, barium chloride, aqua regia and nitric acid extraction. Statistical parameters of the data and differences between methods were determined. The extraction methods were evaluated based on a correlation analysis of the element concentration. For Ca, K, Mg and Mn the results with Mehlich III extracting solution were highly correlated with the barium chloride. Aqua regia was highly correlated with nitric acid in case of Ca, P, Mn and Pb. The largest concentrations in general were obtained mostly with aqua regia. For proved correlating methods Single linear model of regression analysis could be used for recalculations between individual pairs of methods. For more information see Summary at the end of the article.
The aim of the study was to evaluate the Scots pine production and growth characteristics in different site conditions given by the affiliation of the inventory plots to ecological series and forest vegetation altitudinal zones (FVAZ). Tree measurements from the second cycle of National forest inventory (NFI) were used as input data. The evaluation was based on static growth models of diameter at breast height, tree height and volume of mean stem. Scots pine has the greatest production potential on variohumida series, the potential of acid sites is lower compared to the trophic sites. Based on the volume of mean stem at the age of 100 years, the highest production potential of pine stands is on humid sites and in the 4th FVAZ. The observed age of culmination of average volume increment indicates that the optimal age of quantitative felling maturity is in some cases lower than the age of felling maturity derived from the site index curves of valid yield tables. Acceleration in the volume growth was observed for the young stands up to 50 years of age. For more information see Summary at the end of the article.
There has been a certain lack of detailed studies dealing with the occurrence and spread of invasive plant species at the local level, which would be an exact guide for local authorities in Slovakia. It is necessary to know where invasive plant species are found, what is their population density and how can be effectively eradicated. For that reason we observed the spread of local populations of invasive woody neophyte tree of heaven [Ailanthus altissima (Mill.) Swingle] in the town of Hlohovec (SW Slovakia) in 2019. We located the plants in habitat type, measured GPS coordinates in the center of the polygons, estimated the area of their occurrence (m2), average height of trees (m), population density (i.m2), the diameter and the circumference of the tree trunk (m) and evaluated impact of management measures against the neophyte compared to unmanaged areas. In 2019, the colonized area totaled 4,673m2, and A. altissima had not yet occurred in forest ecosystems. The species was found mainly near the Váh River, which accounted for 37 % of the total area studied, along the roads (34 %), on extensively cultivated fields (9 %) and in the parks (9 %). A few A. altissima populations were found also along railways (3 %), on cemeteries (3 %), at abandoned sites (brownfields) (2 %), along field roads (2 %) and in permanent grasslands (1 %). The only management measure was mowing of seedlings in 32 % of the total area occupied by tree of heaven. For more information see Summary at the end of the article.
Climatic extremes and following rapid die-off of forests raised an issue of two-phase regeneration introducing target species under the shelter of preparatory stands. The objective of this study was the verification of impacts of age and stocking of birch stand, and also stocking of 15-year-old rowan and alder stands on the underplanted beech performance as compared with performance of beech planted in clearings. Consequently, the recommendations related to the impacts of preparatory stands on underplanted beech were formulated. There were 17 experimental plots with preparatory tree species of the minimal plot size of 0.04 hectares, and a single small clearing of 0.1 ha used. In 2013, we established treatments with either full (10+ or 10), or reduced (7 and 5) stocking of the preparatory stands. The birch stands were assorted into the age categories of 7, 15, and 30 years of age. Beeches were planted in spring 2013. The beech mortality was assessed in 2015 and 2017. The measurement of growth and selected morphological parameters took place in autumn 2017. The beech mortality was very low in all treatments (below 7 %). The best growing beeches were found in the small clearing. However, all tested preparatory stands’ treatments proved to be usable for the beech stand establishment and the consequent growing. The birch and rowan stockings had a negative impact on the beech growth, whereas an opposite trend was observed in the alder. In the case of preparatory birch, the age of 15 years with the stocking reduction to at least 7 seemed to be the most suitable measure for beech underplatings establishment.