0 - 0.
The article discusses the distribution and use of sweet chestnut (Castanea sativa Mill.) in Europe, and there is a focus on the Czech Republic. In this country, chestnut is a tree that can grow on various types of soil, and the main factor limiting its growing are late frosts. There have been two main reasons for the introduction of sweet chestnut to our lands in history: (1) the tree ornamentality in the gardens of new castles and monasteries, and (2) the nutrition of people. In last few years, however, there has been taken into consideration a new reason for growing the sweet chestnut, namely the production of high-quality honey. On the other hand, there are some factors that pose a threat to the chestnut stands. The most serious and widespread is ink disease caused by fungi of genus Phytophtora, followed by the causative agent of the bark necrosis of chestnut (Cryphonectria parasitica Murr. Barr.).
The paper provides an overview of various late spring frosts’ intensity during the flowering of pedunculate oak (Quercus robur L.). The research was carried out in 1987–2016 at selected phenological stations in Slovakia at altitudes up to 400 m. The frosts intensity was measured at meteorological stations at the height of 0.05 m and 2 m above the earth’s surface. Flowers frost damage was evaluated in three decades focused on temperature extremes. Above mentioned extremes occurred at stations up to 300 meters above sea level in 2001, 2007, 2011 and 2015. Trend analysis of flowering observations during 30 years recorded the shift to an earlier period. Most significantly, it was reflected at an altitude of 200 m. Temperature extremes occur irregularly. In other regions of Slovakia, frost damage to flowers may be more frequent, especially in locations microclimatically available for increased occurrence of frost, due to earlier onset of flowering.
There has been a significant change of conditions in forestry in the last few years, mainly due to the bark beetle calamity, climate change and the changing social order to provide various forest functions in the Czech Republic. This research aimed to find out the opinion of the professional public on current topics related to the calamity situation in the forests. Our work found out the opinions of the professional public using two questionnaires distributed by e-mail. The questions were focused on legislative changes in forestry, communication of state forest administration, the use of Czech wood and wooden constructions. Results showed that a majority of respondents were convinced of the need to reduce the share of Norway spruce in Czech forests. Respondents also commented positively on the future emergence of payments for forest ecosystem services, and preferred constructions with a significant proportion of wood by public contracting authorities. The results provide valuable information for the creation of communication strategies in forestry. For the purposes of Ministry of Agriculture, the results can be used as a feedback on the legislative changes made so far in relation to the bark beetle calamity and in creating proposals for further changes.
In spite of silver fir (Abies alba Mill.) historical importance for forestry management in the Czech Republic, this species shares currently mere 1.1% in the Czech forests due to several reasons such as biotic agents, air-pollution, game damage, inappropriate silvicultural systems etc. According to frequent calamities in dominant spruce monocultures, silver fir has been planted increasingly to establish more diverse and structured stands in last decades. These new stands with silver fir should be also adequately thinned. We see, however, a lack of experience with this silvicultural measure in practice nowadays. The article brings review of results and knowledge about thinning of silver fir stands in the Czech Republic and also from abroad where similar conditions can be expected. It is obvious that silver fir requires different approach to thinning compared to other conifers. We summarised knowledge about measures applied in both fir monocultures and mixtures from young phase of regeneration (artificial or natural) to final thinning in mature stands. Recommendations for pruning and for stands with postponed thinning are also included.
The paper summarizes current information about suitable site conditions and regeneration ecology of pioneer tree species – birches (Betula pendula, Betula pubescens), alders (Alnus glutinosa, Alnus incana), rowan (Sorbus aucuparia), and aspen (Populus tremula) on calamity clearcuttings. Potential of species natural regeneration depends on amount of seed, methods and distance of their dispersal. Common distance of seed dispersal by wind is below 50 m for alders and 100 m for birches, seeds of aspen can be spread for longer distance. Absence of reserves in seeds emphasizes the importance of favourable conditions during seed germination and initial growth. Birch and aspen regenerate best on mineral soils, alders and rowan prefer humus conditions. The knowledge about regeneration ecology of pioneer tree species is fundamentally important to establish strategies for their regeneration on clearcuttings.
European forests are facing an increasing disturbance intensity from different agents. Bark beetle outbreaks fuelled by climate change have increased the level of tree mortality severalfold, with the Czech Republic becoming Europe’s epicentre. Here we elaborated a short-term prognosis of outbreak development (approximated by salvage volumes) for administrative districts of the Czech Republic. We used salvage logging data for the period 2003–2020 and a forecasting model Autoregressive Integrated Moving Average with an automatized parameter estimation. To make the results accessible, we developed a new web-map portal. We found that spruce with an age above 50 years, which is considered a suitable breeding material for bark beetles, can be depleted in 19 Czech districts in the period 2021–2023. The estimated volume of salvage trees due to bark beetle infestation was forecasted to range between 34 and 40 mil. m3 annually in the following three years, with a 90% prediction interval 22 to 52 mil. m3. The presented forecasts represent a missing decision material for the state administration and a data-driven and reproducible alternative to various expert estimates. The developed web-map portal can improve the awareness about the risks to forests and forestry in the Czech Republic and accelerate knowledge transfer from research to management and policies.
This paper presents an evaluation of the public socio-economic importance of forest services in a municipal forest property, in terms of their relationship to the market in the Czech Republic (CR). The total investigated area of the forest property is 3,706.67 ha. The total annual socioeconomic value of its forest services amounts to 104.812 million CZK, capitalized to 5.241 billion CZK. Individual forest services contribute to these total values unevenly and quite differently from the average values in the country. The results confirmed the assumption that knowledge of the average values in the CR is not sufficient for assessment of ecosystem forest services´ value in particular forest property. Rolling results were passed on to the headquarters, representatives and the financial commission of the investigated municipality as well as presented in the municipal bulletin and to native and foreign visitors via annual reports on economic activities of the company of municipal forests. The results of the study lead to the recommendation of performing assessment of the socio-economic value of forest services in more forest properties so that needed sources for determination of goals of forest management in the CR are gained.
One of the projects aimed at solving the problem of the decline of silver fir in the Czech Republic in the 1970s was the establishment of a 20-member series of provenance plots with 153 provenances representing almost the entire distribution area of the species. The work presents results of the evaluation of 36 provenances of silver fir originating from 10 European countries, which are verified in the research plot No. 62 – Nýrsko (western Bohemia). The age of evaluated stands is 36 years. Heights, d.b.h., stem shape and health status of all living trees were determined. Calculated volumes of large wood were compared with the yield tables. Results are interpreted in connection with the assessment of geographical variability within the provenance zones, climatypes and European forest zoning. Based on the obtained data, Czech provenances CZ 185 – Bruntál, CZ 198 – Vítkov and CZ 37 – Rychnov nad Kněžnou belonging to climate type 6c – Lusatian, and also French F 118 – SaintÉvroult II (climatype 3 – Normandy) were evaluated as the best growing. The Italian provenance I 227 – Popi e Bibbiena and the French F 162 – Les Fanges IV proved to be the least successful. Only average values were reached by the provenances belonging to the local climatype 6b – Šumava.