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Large forested areas exhibit a Norway spruce dieback in the Czech Republic. Foresters being faced this disaster need to change tree species composition of new stands. The objective of this study is the assessment of forest regeneration costs at study sites in Northern and Central Moravia (Czech Republic) investigated in 2008–2017. For that purpose we used the data recorded by the state enterprise Forests of the Czech Republic, including information about operations carried out in the regenerated stands that led to their establishment. The data were also divided according to ecological series and certain forest altitudinal zone. Based on the output standards we calculated the regeneration costs including the following silvicultural treatment of the really used species composition, and the costs of a potential regeneration and the following silvicultural treatment of the model species composition comparable with the target tree composition. The results confirmed higher costs on site regeneration where the species composition is more varied and supports ecological stability. However, this species composition requires a more intensive forest management than model species composition favouring mostly Norway spruce.
The literature review summarises the management practices of black locust (Robinia pseudoacacia L.) covering the topics of seed management and nursery production, silvicultural techniques as well as the approaches to the eradication of this tree species. In the Czech Republic, black locust is not included in the conventional forestry schemes because of environmental hazards related to its invasiveness. However, black locust could play a significant role, e.g. in energy plantations, short rotation production plantations (lignicultures) or in the urban greenery. In the European Union, there are countries like Hungary and Romania, where black locust represents an integral and important part of forestry. On the other hand, there are situations in which strict control and/or eradication of black locust is of crucial importance. The authors of this literature review decided to provide the Czech forestry audience with general information and experience on management of black locust under various scenarios in an open access forestry journal written in Czech. As we have experienced several years of extremely low precipitation and high temperatures in the Czech Republic, such information could be useful for Czech forest practitioners in particular.
The article analyzes conditions and functionality of the temperate windbreak in the southeast of the Czech Republic in the cadastral area of Hrušky village. Two windbreaks with a total length of about 4.5 km, representing about 45% of the length of all windbreaks established in the cadastral territory in the 1960s, were selected for our investigation. For the purpose of the field research, both windbreaks were further divided into two parts and then, according to their structure, health condition and function, into sub-segments. In total, 85 segments were distinguished. Detected width of windbreak ranged from 7 to 39 m. In the windbreak tree species composition, common oak predominated with 35%, followed by maple ash (22%) and black poplar (16%). There was also a lower proportion of field elm (12%), black walnut (8%) and small-leaved linden (6%). Height of the windbreak depended on the tree species composition and ranged from 2 to 31.5 m. Function and health condition of the windbreak is limited by insufficient stand care. Thinning treatments specified for concrete segments can be recommended. Partial or complete reconstructions can be suggested in the places with unsatisfactory tree structure component and especially with a high proportion of maple ash.
According to representation of the zonal forest vegetation in scenario of the HadGem variant RCP 45 and 85, there are significant changes in environmental conditions, which can affect the survival or existence of the forest at all. The RCP 45 Model includes the impact of mitigation measures. The RCP 85 Model does not respect any measures. Model scenarios of possible climate developments over the coming decades depend on emission scenarios and thus on environmental conditions. Just this type of threat represents a high degree of uncertainty for the successful implementation of forest adaptation measures. The results are presented on a pilot territory for the Beskydy Natural Forest Area (North Moravia, Czech Republic). The comparison period is the climatic data of operative climatic normal (1981–2010). Based on the approximation of the climatic data according to the HadGem model for 3 periods up to the year 2081, the prediction of climate changes was processed by the represented forest vegetation zones.
Hedgerows and windbreaks are widespread agroforestry systems used worldwide, they are primarily established as a measure to reduce wind speed. The objective of this study is to synthesize information about the ecosystem services provided according to the main four ekosystém services such as provisioning, regulating, cultural and supporting services defined in the Millennium Ecosystem Assessment (MEA 2005) and The Economics of Ecosystems and Biodiversity (TEEB 2010). The main potential of these linear plantings of trees and shrubs lies in providing services resulting in increased economic returns in agriculture and the prevention of soil erosion. Besides, the windbreaks also provide a large number of other services such as an increased biodiversity, carbon sequestration, improved soil and soil enriched with organic matter, climate regulation, water retention and others. Despite all these benefits, the use of agroforestry systems is still at a low level. To achieve the desired effect, the windbreak needs to be designed according to farmer’s needs. This paper synthesizes information on windbreaks, defines the role of woody plants in the agricultural landscape and proposes measures to increase the sustainability of agriculture in the multifunctional landscape. Similar assessments can serve as a basis for addressing issues of strategic importance.
This study evaluates the influence of artificial ectomycorrhizal inoculation on the growth of pedunculate oak (Quercus robur) seedlings in relation to the soil nutrient content. 1.5 years after planting, 30 inoculated seedlings and 30 control seedlings were sampled. The sampled seedlings’ growth and mycorrhizal characteristics were evaluated. Mixed soil samples were taken from both plots (inoculated × control) for determination of pH values and the content of biogenic, trace and selected metal elements. Inoculated seedlings showed a statistically significant lower density of active and nonactive mycorrhizae and proportion of active mycorrhizae. The differences in a height of aboveground parts, root collar diameter and weight of aboveground matter of the seedlings were not statistically significant. Experimental plots differed in a nutrient concentration in the soil, especially concentration of available phosphorus on treated plots were higher in comparison with control plots (557% compared to the control). Therefore, a failure of the inoculation in this study could be caused just by a higher content of available phosphorus in the soil in the area with inoculated seedlings.
At the peak of the bark beetle calamity, which is taking place in the Czech Republic, the main problem of forestry operators is to make the most of the harvested wood. The increase in the calamity is not related to the Czech Republic, as the whole European timber market is saturated. An attractive alternative is the export of the timber affected by bark beetle to China. Nowadays, more companies are engaged in this activity, and the volume of such exported wood grows geometrically. However, in addition to improving the value of wood, this trade also has its risks, mainly related to the political situation and dependence on the rail and shipping. In the first quarter of 2019, the average price on the delivery point for exports to China amounted to 1,250 CZK/m3, whereas for the other consumers in Europe including the Czech Republic it wass approximately 900 CZK/m3. Consequently, in the first quarter of 2019, the export of coniferous timber affected by bark beetle to China increased to 350,000 m3. Under favourable political conditions, the export of the damaged timber to China will certainly continue to be capitalised on in the future, and its volume will continue to grow.
The aim of the article is to evaluate the development of plantations of differently performing parts of the mountain spruce population in the area with high nitrogen deposition. The high nitrogen compounds load threats the stability of the forest stands and consequently affects the forest functions on mountainous sites over long time. An important measure to reduce the sensitivity of forest ecosystems is also the support of a high level of biodiversity. This means a maintenance of intraspecies variability within populations. The first results of the experiment were in accordance with previous experience with other mountain spruce populations as the initially slower-growing seedlings showed the best growth and health after being planted in mountain conditions. On the basis of these results it is still possible to hypothesize that one of the options to reduce the negative impact of nitrogen in mountain climates lies in that artificial restoration strategy that does not eliminate the category of initially slowly-growing spruces.