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The common yew (Taxus baccata L.) is classified as a highly endangered plant species according to the valid national legislation. Wild or at least historical cultural occurrences of this species have been preserved only in some areas of the Czech Republic, including the Lusatian Mountains. In this region, the issue of yew has been given increased attention for two decades. In 1999, a targeted inventarization of species occurrence sites was started. The yew gene pool is protected and the population reinforcement by plantings at selected forest sites is carried out. The subjects of interest are 14 potentially autochthonous ± isolated yew localities in the Lusatian Mountains and 3 localities of undoubtedly cultural origin. Selected quantitative and qualitative characteristics of all known yew individuals were measured. More attention is focused on the issue of natural regeneration, seedlings ecesis and sex ratio. The results correspond well with the findings of other authors. Yew, even in advanced age, is characterized by a significant increase in thickness and good vitality. The species responds very positively to supportive measures of regulátory conservation management.
This study focuses on foliar nutrients contents in current- and one-year-old needles that can be regarded as a proxy of health condition of the saplings on the site, and also can help us estimate a litterfall nutrient return difference between the silver fir (SF) and Norway spruce (NS). The new forest stand dominated by SF and NS was of natural regeneration origin from 120-year-old spruce-fir stand; all mature spruces were cut as salvage crop from the stand at the time of investigation. The saplings of SF and NS with a few other species varied in height ranging from 1 m to 4 m. Despite spruces of all age classes show needle yellowing in the area of interest, SF and NS saplings show no color changes. The samples of current-year and one-year-old needles were taken from the 2nd–3rd whorls of randomly selected NS saplings; each of these NS were paired with the nearest SF saplings of comparable growth. Totally 20 NS and 20 SF trees were sampled, measured their height and last three years increments. Foliar contents of N, P, K, Ca and Mg were analyzed in laboratory. The logarithmically transformed data were statistically processed using oneway ANOVA with block design and RDA. Nutrient concentrations and also nutrient ratios of NS and SF current-year needles were similar; NS was higher in N. One-year-old SF needles were higher in K and lower in Mg. Higher N/K in NS and higher N/Mg, K/Mg in SF were found. Despite below-optimal contents of Ca and Mg in both species, no symptoms were shown. SF needles did not differ from NS ones.
The effect of commercial peat substrates (AgroCS, Gramoflor) and ectomycorrhizal (ECM) inoculations (Mycorrhiza roots, Mycorrhiza soluble, forest soil, vermiculite, vermiculite inoculum and control) on the root morphology of Norway spruce (Picea abies [L.] Karst.) seedlings was investigated. The experiment set-up was in complete randomized blocks. One block consisted of 12 combinations of inoculation (6 variants) and substrate (2 substrates). The whole experiment consisted of three blocks (repetitions). Lower root tissue density entails higher number of root tips, root forks and specific tips number per weight (STN-W). Higher root volume entails higher root length and average root diameter. Inoculation further enhanced the effect of the substrate where Mycorrhiza roots × AgroCS reached the highest root length (44.85 cm). For the number of root tips, the most significant positive effect was observed in the interaction of vermiculite × AgroCS (161). The interaction of Mycorrhiza roots × AgroCS significantly positively influenced STN-W (11 618). The number of root forks was the highest in the interaction of vermiculite × Gramoflor (173). The lowest values of root tips, root forks and STN-W (80; 85; 5109) were observed in the control × AgroCS interaction. The lowest root length (25.44 cm) was observed in forest soil × Gramoflor interaction. The conditions created by the interaction of Mycorrhiza roots × AgroCS were more favourable for morphological parameters of seedlings roots.
Climate oscillations have been affecting forests over last years, and a shift in tree species composition is expected. The objective of this study is the development of three model tree species compositions with different share of the natural regeneration of target and pioneer species and the evaluation of the reforestation costs and the costs of plantation establishments. The species compositions were composed according to the basis for the determination aggregated target species composition (ÚHÚL 2019a). The stand type of oak of the normal quality represented lower-altitude-sites, and the stand type of beech of the normal quality represented higher-altitude sites. The potential value of the rotation age stands (120 years) was also assessed. The regeneration costs and the costs of the stands’ establishment were calculated using the output standards. The calculation included the really reported natural regeneration. Model A was composed of targeted species, Model B contained 20% of pioneer species and Model C consisted of 40% pioneer species. The results at all sites confirmed a decrease in the costs of regeneration and stands’ establishment, which corresponded to the natural regeneration share. The value of the rotation aged stands, which contained the significant share of pioneer species, mostly did not achieve the value level of the stands with the standard species composition (Model A). It will be important to focus the attention to the selection of a suitable species composition used for the forest regeneration and to the quality of the stand tending. The stands that regenerated by a new species, through spatially and time differentiated composition should be able to create the high value of the society-wide functions appropriately.
Ten research plots were selected on the Eagle Mts. (Orlické hory, Czech Republic) ridge, within complexes of young Norway spruce stands. Since 2002 the defoliation of tree crowns and height increment have been assessed every year after the vegetation season. Sampling of needles for nutrient analyses has been carried out since 2004 every autumn together with the crown condition assessment. Soil samples were taken in 2006, 2010, 2014 and 2018. Samples of the upper organic layer and of the mineral soil in 0–25 cm depth were taken separately. Samples of assimilation organs, humus and mineral soil were prepared and analysed according to the standard ICP Forests methods. Long term results have confirmed that the crown defoliation is decreasing. Health status significantly improved, and crown defoliation values got comparable to those of other forest regions in the Czech Republic. Foliar concentrations of stress elements (sulfur, fluorine) decreased, and foliar analysis demonstrated a significant decrease in air pollution load. There is a problem with insufficient uptake of phosphorus. Soil analyses confirmed the fact that the soil environment is acidic, and the amounts of accessible phosphorus, exchangeable magnesium and calcium are significantly deficient in the mineral soil. In this region there is still high deposition load – total N deposition varies usually between 30–40 kg.ha-1.y-1 and total S deposition between 15–30 kg.ha-1.y-1, i.e. 2–3 times higher than in other regions of the country.
The goal of this study is evaluation of the effect of different levels of plant water stress on their subsequent performance in the first growing season after planting. The most noticeable manifestation of current global climate change are more frequent drought periods of greater intensity and different duration. For successful artificial forest restoration, the basic factor is the use of high-quality planting stock showing both morphological quality and desired physiological status. The physiological status of the plants is one of the most important factors predisposing survival rates and growth after planting. For objective evaluation of their water regime a water potential (stress) of plants was measured using the pressure chamber, water content, water deficit and relative electrical conductivity. For the reforestation of large clear cuts, which area is increasing currently, it is necessary to use also artificial renewal using preparatory (pioneer) trees. The results showed that all the methods used to evaluate the physiological quality responded to the stress of silver birch and European aspen seedlings exposed to deliberate drying and corresponded to losses and reduced growth after planting. The birch seedlings were more sensitive to drying when compared to aspen.
We present the dynamics of biomass production values of macromycetes in relation to the different age of spruce monocultures on former agricultural land (Western Carpathians). Altogether 145 macromycetes were evaluated in fresh weight biomass of sporocarps (kg.ha-1). The highest production ratios of sporocarp biomass were obtained at the permanent research plot (PRP) C – 54-year-old stand (1,732.65 kg.ha-1) and lowest biomass at PRP B – 34-year-old stand (1,028.24). The ectomycorrhizal macromycetes (EM) was the highest production ecotrophical group, which produced 2,700.86 kg.ha-1 of sporocarp biomass with high values in 24-year forest growth. The species Lactarius rufus (906.14 kg. ha-1) had the highest biomass production as well as saprotrophs Rhodocollybia butyracea (174.86) and wood-inhabiting species Hypholoma fasciculare (506.38). The effect of the season showed to be statistically significant for the production of EM species (F = 6.242, p < 0.01). Wood-inhabiting species were influenced by age of stands (F = 5.814, p < 0.001). The seasons, age of stands as well as their interaction were statistically insignificant for terrestrial macromycetes (TS). The condition for optimum production of EM and TS macromycetes was average night temperature 8.2–10 oC, where the relationship of temperature is dependent on 42.1%.
The article summarizes basic information about the conditions of forest seed management and nursery management in the Czech Republic. Given the fluctuating year-to-year development, it is problematic to predict the future trends in these fields. The source materials included data from the Reports on Forest Management of the Czech Republic supplemented with data obtained from the Forest Management Institute and the Czech Statistical Office, from an anonymous questionnaire survey into nursery operations, and technical literature dealing with the issue. First, the current state analysis was carried out. Subsequently, the further development was estimated based on synthesis principles. The main problems of forest seed production appear to be a decrease in the production of seed material and, consequently, a decrease in the quantity of seed stock. Areas with the least quality seed sources expanded. Forest nursery has long been struggling with the fact that there is no assured outlet for the cultivated planting stock before its cultivation. There were no plant production increases though unstocked areas expanded, but without an overall increase in recovery areas.