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Climatic extremes and following rapid die-off of forests raised an issue of two-phase regeneration introducing target species under the shelter of preparatory stands. The objective of this study was the verification of impacts of age and stocking of birch stand, and also stocking of 15-year-old rowan and alder stands on the underplanted beech performance as compared with performance of beech planted in clearings. Consequently, the recommendations related to the impacts of preparatory stands on underplanted beech were formulated. There were 17 experimental plots with preparatory tree species of the minimal plot size of 0.04 hectares, and a single small clearing of 0.1 ha used. In 2013, we established treatments with either full (10+ or 10), or reduced (7 and 5) stocking of the preparatory stands. The birch stands were assorted into the age categories of 7, 15, and 30 years of age. Beeches were planted in spring 2013. The beech mortality was assessed in 2015 and 2017. The measurement of growth and selected morphological parameters took place in autumn 2017. The beech mortality was very low in all treatments (below 7 %). The best growing beeches were found in the small clearing. However, all tested preparatory stands’ treatments proved to be usable for the beech stand establishment and the consequent growing. The birch and rowan stockings had a negative impact on the beech growth, whereas an opposite trend was observed in the alder. In the case of preparatory birch, the age of 15 years with the stocking reduction to at least 7 seemed to be the most suitable measure for beech underplatings establishment.
Nowadays, the possibility of public access to forests, recognized as the recreational forest function, is considered to be one of the cultural ecosystem services. Legally regulated right to roam and, more specifically, legally regulated public access to forests is, among others, the necessary condition of factual use of recreation forest potential. This paper deals with the assessment of legal conditions of public access to forests in the context of freedom to roam. Based on the theoretical concepts of right to roam and property rights, the paper analyses and compares the substantial forest and nature protection legislation valid in the area of Slovakia and Czechia at the beginning of 1990s with the present situation. Using the Czech and Slovak nature protection acts and forest acts, both the material as well as personal scope of public access to forests were analysed. Results show that while the freedom to roam was not incorporated in the respective legislation before 1990, nowadays there are serious modifications in this legal institute in both countries. Considering public access to forests, its legal regulation before 1990 was exactly the same in Slovakia and Czechia, while the present situation is also significantly different.
In this paper the evaluation of nine restocking plantings of common yew (Taxus baccata L.) is presented. Localities represent different site conditions typical for the Protected Landscape Area Lužické hory Mts., Czech Republic based on edaphic categories and forest vegetation zones. The for was to evaluate selected yew characteristics 4 years after planting, to compare localities, determine the effect of habitat conditions, as well as seedling protection methods. Observed for all individuals at all sites were height, stem base diameter, growth shape, defoliation, coloration of needles, and presence of pests. Height and stem base diameter were compared using multiple comparison methods. As for height and basal thickness of seedlings, the best results were achieved in conditions of the 4th forest vegetation zone (beech) on compacted acid, nutrient-medium and partly acidic soils, on small clearings with side shading and in individual wire fences. The worst results occurred in the 6th (spruce with beech) and partly also in the 5th (beech with fir) forest vegetation zones on stony-colluvial and partly acidic edaphic categories, in conditions of a relatively closed beech canopy and in individual wooden fences.
This paper deals with the first results of two sycamore group planting experiments established in the training forest enterprise Křtiny (South Moravia, Czech Republic). The Soběšice II plot, established in 2013, compares group planting (17 seedlings; patches of 7.1 m2) to whole-area planting. The Tipeček experiment, established in 2015, compares the whole area sycamore planting to sycamore group planting created by sixteen sycamores (spacing 1,4 m × 1,4 m) introduced into the gaps of young birch stands. Treatment of whole-area planting on Tipeček was fenced, and the sycamore group planting was protected partly by a repellent and partly by a treeshelter. For the same plot, modeling of regeneration costs was performed differing in method of planting and in game prove protection. Results from the Soběšice II plot were ambiguous. Sycamore in the Tipeček plot grew the best in the whole-area plating treatment; the slowest growth and the highest number of forked trees was observed in groups where planting was protected by repellent. Modeling of regeneration costs supports hypothesis that group planting is considered a low costs regeneration method. The present use of group planting method is also restricted as a consequence of damage caused by game population.
The effectivity of timber skidding process evaluated through the time consumption is mostly affected by the technology, ergonomic demands and environmental factors connected with the technology used. There is still an inadequate research effort aimed to time consumption and work effectivity of forest skidders in Slovakia, which is one of the causes of insufficient payments for their work. The paper compares time consumptions for particular work operations of the forest skidders calculated from the data from field measurements compared with standardized forest skidders time consumptions published in the Collection of performance standards (MLVH 1992) of the Ministry of Agriculture of the Slovak Republic. Measuring the time consumption of skidders was carried out using the methods of continual time study, i.e. by connecting the work day snapshot with the fluent chronometry. The results confirmed statistically significant differences in time consumption for particular work operations such as winching and work on the forest landing between cable and cable-grapple skidder. Generalized linear models confirmed that particular work operations (winching, skidding and works on the forest landing) in both technologies are affected by the same production factors. We found significant differences of the basic standardized times for the particular work operations (Calculated standardized times on based measured time versus actual standards of the Slovak Ministry) only in the case of the HSM 805 HD skidder.
In this article the results of the research focused on the calorific value capacity in the dry matter of above-ground biomass of beech, sessile oak and hornbeam are presented. For each tree species, 5–6 trees were felled and biomass samples were taken. From the lower, middle and crown part of the trunks, a disc of wood with bark was cut off and also a sample of branches (small-wood) was taken from crowns. On the discs, the bark was separated from the wood. The calorific value content was determined from all samples and fractions (wood, bark, small-wood). The differences in the calorific value among the fractions, their position on the trunk and tree species were investigated by an analysis of variance and a t-test. The biggest differences are between wood and bark. The bark has lower values of calorific value than wood, by 1,000–1,700 J g-1. Coniferous tree species have higher calorific value by 600–900 J g-1 (3–4 %) for wood; 1,000–1,400 J g-1 (5–7 %) for small-wood and 2,400–2,700 J g-1 (13–15 %) for bark compared to deciduous species.
Health conditions and a performance of forest tree plantations were evaluated on the Slatinice spoil heap (Miocene limnic fine-grain sediments) at the end of the growing season in 2019. In total 800 trees of six species were planted at two ecologically different spoil heap sites in 2010. Postmining substrates were compared to the naturally evolved soil of seminatural adjacent habitat Hruška. Soil water availability was measured in the depth of rooting. Plant dieback depended on site conditions, and it was also found to be species-specific. Hornbeam trees were the tallest, while the other species showed just the half of their size. On the basis of growth achievement/dieback ratio, the most suitable species for spoil heap conditions were ranked in the order: oak > hornbeam > lime. Physical soil characteristic of seminatural Hruška and Ressl spoil heap site were similar as for high content of clayey fraction, high bulk density and low porosity. On the seminatural habitat, a topsoil (A horizon) with sufficient content of humus has evolved. Substrate of the Sypaný spoil-heap showed much more favourable physical properties such as lower bulk density, higher porosity, and sufficient content of humus. Its substrate was also deeper rooted. Soil matric potential (SMP) registered on substrates of the higher bulk density, showed more than 5-month long period when values dropped below the range of limited avaiability of water in A horizon in 2019. The lower bulk density substrate remained in sufficient water availability range, with an exception of its drop into range of limited availability of water for one summer month. This plot was placed on the base of spoil heap and was supplied by ground water.
The paper presents forest pedagogy (FP) as a part of environmental training and education in Slovakia. There are mentioned three stages of its development here: start-up, intensive development, and cross-sectoral cooperation. The start-up is characterized by introduction of the FP for forest owners and managers. Intensive development of FP is characterized by the cooperation of forest organizations in this area, development of FP strategy, and intensive foreign cooperation. The FP has been accepted by all relevant forestry entities as a suitable PR communication tool, and as a consequence, 385 forest pedagogues were educated. Within the cross-sectoral cooperation, intensive collaboration with the Ministry of Education has begun, and it is aimed at the education of pedagogical staff in the field of environmental education. The third stage includes also cooperation with the Ministry of Environment in the area of creating a functional system of environmental education in Slovakia. A significant stimulus in cross-sectoral cooperation is the implementation of a research project “Forest pedagogy and education for sustainable development in pre-primary and primary education”, coordinated by the University of Constantine the Philosopher in Nitra. For the further development of FP in Slovakia it is necessary to ensure its permanent and multi-source financing and intensify the cross-sectoral and foreign cooperation.