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In this work, the Data Envelopment Analysis as non-parametric approach for measuring efficiency of many homogenous entities was used for the valuation of scale efficiency of the forest contractors. Forest services are provided by small and medium-sized enterprises employing up to 50 employees and individuals – self-employed persons. Results of the efficiency analysis by Data Envelopment Analysis show the average efficiency in range of 63–80%, depending on the model. Assessment of dependence on efficiency and others in the model of non-included variables (such as the business region, length of business) confirmed the presumption of their significant impact on the resulting efficiency within the chosen sample. Differences in the average efficiency of forest contractors among the regions are quite significant. Average efficiency of forest contractors was highest in the Nitra region and lowest in the Košice region. The efficiency with the length of business is slightly increasing and this dependence is also statistically significant.
The main objective of the research was to propose and validate new methods and procedures for solving crisis situations in forestry and to create aids for decision making of forest owners and managers. Motivation to the research was the increasing number of emerging crisis situations and growing damage to the forest environment. In the framework of the pre-research, the theoretical basis of the problems was defined, the significance of solved problems for forestry was determined, analysis and subsequent synthesis of the existing literary sources was carried out, and the aim of the work was defined. In order to solve the problem, the sequence within processing of the windfall wood was determined, using the MCDA method. On the basis of research results, the real possibility of the use of mathematical methods to support decision-making of management in forestry when dealing with crisis situations was demonstrated. The possibility of using the MCDA method to determine the sequence of solutions within windfall wood processing in a particular case was verified. Currently there has been an increasing number of emerging crisis situations in the context of climate change and society impact on the environment in the forestry sector. Therefore it is necessary to develop new methods and procedures to deal with crisis situations and avoid the occurrence of major economic and environmental damage to the forest environment.
Douglas-fir (DF) performance was investigated in mixed plantations across a range of forest site conditions in the Czech Republic. DF showed both comparable and superior capability to perform well within transect from lowland natural-pine to higher and mountainous sites. DF root collar diameter increment exceeded all other native species such as Norway spruce (NS), silver fir (NSF), sessile oak (OK) and European beech (BE). Higher to mountainous conditions favored the native species compared to DF. Mortality of DF ranged 5–53% over investigated period; the only exception was the site where DF was attacked by large pine weevil and showed mortality 54–97%. Generally, DF showed comparable or even lower mortality compared to the native species.
Species determination of forest birds in the field is mostly acoustic-based. Thus, acoustic detectability of birds is probably a key factor significantly affecting the results of bird census in forests. In this study, we focused on acoustic detectability of nesting birds in the European temperate floodplain forest. We analysed songs in passerines and territorial calls in non-passerine birds. The audibility of bird calls is relatively high, most species can be well acoustically detected at the distance of 100 m and longer. Good audibility was recorded (across the species under study) at the distance of 57–608 m (mean 213 m, median 175 m, SD = 117, n = 53), threshold audibility at the distance of 57–897 m (mean 231 m, median 185 m, SD = 151, n = 53). In a floodplain forest with closed canopy, the audibility of birds was significantly lower than in open habitats. The audibility of birds was rather low before 10 a. m. (Central European Summer Time) and increased later due to the decline of vocal activity of a part of the bird assemblage, when a smaller number of individuals was calling and, at the same time, the threshold distance of their audibility increased. The audibility is higher in species with larger body size (body mass > 50 g) in comparison with smaller species (body mass ≤ 50 g). In the paper, some factors affecting the acoustic detectability of forest birds are discussed.
Douglas-fir (DF) is thought to be a convenient substitution of declined Norway spruce (NS) in the Czech Republic. Information on water regime of DF and stand mixtures with DF is important particularly in relation to climatic oscillations posing both flood and drought risks to forests. Taking into account a lack of domestic information, the review was based also on world literature sources. Water regime of DF and forest mixtures with DF includes many topics. This study focused on water balance and its components such as precipitation of open area, throughfall, stemflow, net precipitation, interception losses, water uptake by trees, transpiration, evaporation from soil surface, forest floor and ground vegetation, hillslope runoff, surface runoff, subsurface flow, subsurface stormflow, lateral interflow, groundwater recharge, stream flow, soil water content, redistribution of soil water by tree roots etc. The most important finding is that DF is capable of using water from deeper soil layers more effectively than NS. This enables DF to transpire more water during dry periods and also to grow faster compared to NS. Mentioned hydrological impacts of tree species should be taken into account for planning future tree species compositions of forests. Given the intensive use of soil water by DF, it appears that DF can aggravate water conditions in watersheds with tense water balance (water consumption ≈ atmospheric precipitation) in dry periods.
The work presents results of a case study in nursery planting bare root seedlings of Norway spruce (Picea abies /L./ Karst), assessing opportunities in intensification (fertilizers, preparations) of nursery stock cultivation in slightly acid-to-neutral soil. Following fertilizers were used: (1) mineral fertilizers with specific composition of N-P-K-Mg, with admixture of growth regulators, (2) auxiliary plant preparation, and (3) dolomitic limestone. Effect of the chemical amelioration was evaluated via soil reaction, nutrient amount in soil, C/N ratio, base saturation, plant nutrition, biometrical parameters and health status. The dolomitic limestone increased calcium and magnesium in soil considerably and reduced biomass production. Liming affected nutrient status rather negatively, compared with the mineral fertilizers and imbalanced nutrient levels on soil colloids. Slight decrease in soil reaction resulting from application of physiologically acidic fertilizers was considered suitable with regards to ecological demands of Norway spruce. Combination of fertilizer and auxiliary plant preparation increased production of assimilatory organs and fine roots; suitable shoot/root ratio was also maintained. The use of growth regulators and auxiliary plant preparations can be acceptable in order to achieve optimal nursery stock quality under suboptimal soil conditions.
There is an increase in damage caused by biotic agents in the forests of Central Europe. One of the choices for protecting forests against insect pests is the ability to use the biological protection of the birds of family Picidae. They are able to effectively control pests and indirectly promote the occurrence of another beneficial animal species. We dealt with three species with different habitat requirements: three-toed woodpecker (Picoides tridactylus), the black woodpecker (Dryocopus martius) and the great spotted woodpecker (Dendrocopos major). In general, they can halve the amount of the pest population. The three-toed woodpecker feeds mainly on bark beetles and longhorn beetles. It needs a large amount of dead wood, which almost excludes its presence in production forests. Other species do not have so many environmental demands. The black woodpecker is tied to larger forest complexes, including production forests. The great spotted woodpecker is able to colonise even small fragments of forests. Economic loss caused by nest holes excavating and hunting of wood boring insect are negligible. Holes have a small volume and are mostly created in already damaged wood. The presence of woodpeckers in production forests is desirable, and it should be encouraged by keeping enough amount of dead and cavity trees.
This study estimates the effect of application of mycorrhizal additives Ectovit and Mycorrhizaroots and hydro-absorbent Stockosorb on survival, growth and foliar nutrients of Norway spruce and European beech seedlings five years after outplanting. Survival rate was 74% for spruce and 56% for beech seedlings, regardless of treatments. Ectovit- and Stockosorb-treated spruce survived by 8% better than control, Mycorrhizaroots treated beech survived by 10% worse than in the other treatments. Damage rate of spruce was higher than that of beech in consequence of dying of severe damaged beech seedlings (deer browsing, mechanical damage at weed control, shoots drying) that were not counted to damage rate. Growth of spruce was slightly more intensive than growth of beech. A slightly positive effect of Stockosorb on the growth of spruce and slightly negative effect on the growth of beech was detected, however, these effects were not significant. Foliar analyses revealed sufficient nutritional status for spruce, but insufficient content of potassium and magnesium for beech. Concentrations of nutrients in spruce needles were slightly higher in control than in Ectovit-treated seedlings, whereas nutrients in beech foliage were almost equal in all treatments. The results suggest a different response of the species tested to the additives, however, the additives effects were not marked on intraspecific level, probably due to favorable soil and climatic conditions of the planting site.